Industrial Utility Efficiency    

Technology

The useful and various properties of nitrogen (N2) in industrial applications rank it as one of the most specified gases in industry. For the manufacturer, nitrogen options exist in the choice of delivery system, compliance with clean air standards, safety and purity. In researching these choices, manufacturers can accurately select the optimum nitrogen supply required, often at a considerable savings. Selecting purity levels of 99.99% or higher in many industries and applications ads a variety of costs, both financial and efficiency, which may be needlessly incurred.

Air Compressors

In general, this article focuses on the definitions of terms often used to understand centrifugal air compressor performance. Comments are also made on how to measure power consumption. This article is not intended to be an engineering discussion of the various types and designs of centrifugal and other air compressors.

Air Treatment

Compressed air is dried to prevent condensation and corrosion which can disrupt manufacturing processes and contaminate products. Water is the primary promotor of chemical reactions and physical erosion in compressed air systems. A myriad of desiccant dryer designs have been devised to provide “commercially dry” air, air having a dew point of -40°F or less, to prevent corrosion.  Desiccant dryers use solid adsorbents in granule form to reduce the moisture content of compressed air.

Blowers

High speed bearing technology is applicable for aeration blowers operating at much higher speeds than the typical 60Hz, 3600RPM for cast multistage units. High Speed Turbo (HST) units are usually single stage (though some utilize multiple cores) and rotate from 15,000 to 50,000RPM. At such high speeds, standard roller bearings cannot offer the industry standard L10 bearing life. Two types of bearing technologies have come to dominate the wastewater treatment market for these types of machines: airfoil and magnetically levitated. Often the two technologies are compared as equals, however, in many significant ways they are not.

Compressor Controls

Quite often the typical variability in compressed air flow demand does not proportionately translate into power reductions at the air compressors. This can be a result of numerous problems with the compressed air supply system. It is important to understand the supply-side’s ability to respond to the demand-side of the compressed air system. If the air compressors, on the supply-side, are not able to translate flow reductions into energy savings, implementation of demand reduction projects should be re-evaluated.  

Instrumentation

This article defines different aspects of regulator design and how they affect air wasted by droop. Some ways to reduce droop have be shown and some special case situations discussed. By taking care with regulator selection and installation, regulators can save large amounts of air instead of wasting it.  

Pneumatics

The design of wastewater treatment plants is changing, and it has something to do with LEGO® bricks. More specifically, it has to do with how large and complex LEGO structures are built. If you follow the instructions carefully, you build module after module, eventually piecing them together to create a fully functional and cohesive unit.

Vacuum

It’s one thing to move materials during the production process, but when it’s a finished product on the packaging line, choosing the right material handling system is essential. Getting it wrong results in squandered production time when product loss occurs, and wasted raw materials.

Cooling Systems

As a result of compressed air awareness training and a focus on energy management, two facilities in different parts of the world have reduced their compressed air demand substantially by removing vortex style cabinet coolers from some of their electrical panels and reworking the cooling systems.  These facilities were previously unaware of the high cost of compressed air and how much could be saved if other methods of cooling were used. This article describes some of their efforts in demand reduction.
As a reader of this journal, you are well aware that large compressed air systems often have significant wasted air — often from leaks — that represent tens of thousands of dollars of waste per year. However, it is our experience that the so-called “low-cost” measures identified often go un-repaired, while other more costly capital projects get funded. Why? With an ROI of a half year or less, they seem like IQ tests to many compressed air auditors.
As the 21st century progresses, the environment is becoming very unsettling for distribution in the industrial air compressor industry. The forces of change discussed in Part 1 of this two-part series created a situation very unfamiliar to distribution. The stability experienced by the industry from 1960 to 1990 was displaced by the volatility of the last 25 years. Consolidation of manufacturers and distributors, loss of channel power, evolution of hybrid channels to market, and intense pressure on profitability are just a few of the major forces distribution has had to deal with. Distribution’s tentative reaction to these forces has resulted in both distributors and manufacturers questioning the long-term viability and relevance of distribution in the industrial air compressor industry.
Many thousands of dollars of annual electrical savings are being achieved worldwide using special purge reduction controls on desiccant air dryers. These controls reduce the expensive purge air that must flow through the dryer to regenerate the desiccant beds. But, unexpected problems with these controls can cause hidden problems that can reduce or eliminate the savings.
Compressed Air Best Practices® (CABP) Magazine recently spoke with Rick Stasyshan, Compressed Air and Gas Institute’s (CAGI) Technical Consultant, and Mr. Neil Breedlove of CAGI's Centrifugal Compressor Section and member company, Atlas Copco Compressors, about centrifugal air compressors. Specifically, the discussion outlined how various inlet conditions can impact the performance of centrifugal air compressors.
Hannover Messe 2015 attracted 220,000 visitors with 70,000 coming from outside Germany. The show placed a major emphasis on the digitization of manufacturing. Deutsche Messe Board Member Dr. Joachim Kockler said, “Industry 4.0 has arrived. Digital integration is becoming a key aspect of modern manufacturing and this trend is set to continue at a rapid pace.” It is clear our sector is investing in the “Industry 4.0” trend allowing compressed air system key performance indicators to be captured and managed. The goal of this article is to provide readers with a sampling of highlights catching my eye at the show – with apologies to the many companies left out due to editorial space limitations.
“Jurassic Park,” Michael Crichton’s 1990 novel about a theme park full of genetically engineered dinosaurs, circles around one central theme — control. In fact, there are literally nine chapters titled “Control,” and most of those chapters follow the brilliant, chain-smoking systems engineer John Arnold as he ravenously tries to restore the control systems after a catastrophic collapse.
A common adage that has been quoted many times in this journal is: “If you don’t measure it, you can’t manage it.” This is partly true. It assumes that managers are willing and able to manage the costs and reliability of their compressed air system. Without data, however, they can’t do an effective job. But because managers are at times already overwhelmed with data, more data doesn’t automatically make them a better manager. A better way of saying it is: “Appropriate measurement can make you a better manager.”
In our discussions with Stephen Titus and James Bowers, National Sales Manager of Titus Air Systems, we talked about several examples of how The Titus Company provided custom-engineered solutions to various customers. The diversity and complexity of these jobs exemplify how The Titus Company has grown from a small distributorship operating out of a townhome to a thriving compressed air and gas solutions provider capable of tackling highly nuanced applications.
In general, this article focuses on the operating principles of centrifugal air compressors, discussing them in simple terms to provide an understanding of application limitations and opportunities. One primary goal is to define often-confusing terminology, such as “rise to surge,” stonewall and surge,” “mass flow,” and “dynamic compression.” This article is not intended to be an engineering discussion of the various types and designs of centrifugal and other air compressors, but rather, a guideline for deciphering operating curves and understanding general performance.
There are many distributors in the industrial air compressor industry that are very concerned about the future role of distribution—or, more specifically—if there even is a role for distribution in the new business environment. The industry has changed, and doing business in the current environment is very different from what distribution has become accustomed to. You may describe it as a “changing of the paradigm” or “moving the cheese,” but make no mistake—it has changed drastically. There are examples of progressive distributors that have succeeded in managing change and have adapted their business strategy accordingly.